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The Effects of Immediate Feedback on Reading Achievement
Samuels, S. J., & Wu, Y. (2003). Manuscript submitted for publication, University of Minnesota.
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This independent, quasi-experimental study found that after just six months, students receiving immediate feedback demonstrated twice the gain in reading comprehension of students not receiving immediate feedback.

The study included 67 third- and fifth-grade students in four classes at an urban, Midwestern elementary school, with each of the four classes randomly assigned to study condition. All four classrooms spent the same amount of class time engaged in independent reading. Two classrooms were provided with immediate feedback on reading comprehension, whereas the other two sections used delayed-feedback in the form of book reports graded by the teacher as the main feedback mechanism. The Group Reading Assessment and Diagnostic Evaluation (GRADE) was used to measure vocabulary, sentence, and passage comprehension. A curriculum based measurement (CBM) of oral reading fluency was used to determine the students’ reading speed. Results showed a significant main effect in favor of the group that received immediate feedback on gain scores for passage comprehension and composite comprehension. In addition, a significant main effect for the low-reading ability group was found on three dependent measures: GRADE comprehension composite, vocabulary meaning, and CBM word-per-minute rate.

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